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    婁洪:規范推進PPP項目政府采購工作

    2016年06月06日 12:47 來源:中國政府采購網打印

      “十三五”規劃建議提出,要創新公共服務提供方式,能由政府購買提供的,政府不再直接承辦;能由政府和社會資本合作提供的,廣泛吸收社會資本參與。借此機會,我簡要向大家通報一下PPP項目政府采購工作的進展情況,并就如何規范開展PPP項目政府采購活動,談幾點認識。   

      一、PPP項目政府采購工作的進展情況  

      PPP的本質是政府創新公共服務提供方式而進行的一種特殊采購活動,依法屬于政府采購的管理范疇。但相較傳統服務項目采購模式,PPP模式建立了全新的管理理念和操作流程,政府和社會資本的合作期限長、履約風險防控要求高、采購合同體系復雜,專業性要求更高。史耀斌副部長在剛剛結束的第十五屆中國經濟論壇上指出,推廣PPP模式是公共服務、供給機制的配合,是供給側結構性改革的重要內容。因此,提高PPP項目政府采購專業化水平,大力推動PPP項目實施,是當前和今后一個時期政府采購的重點工作之一。

      財政部《政府和社會資本合作模式操作指南(試行)》和《政府和社會資本合作項目政府采購管理辦法》印發后,一年來,各地、各部門按照財政部的要求,將PPP項目社會資本合作者的選擇納入了政府采購管理范圍,通過嚴格、規范的程序保證了采購的規范和透明,特別是財政部新認定的競爭性磋商采購方式,在實踐中得到了較為廣泛的運用,促進了一批PPP項目的落地實施。但從我們跟蹤了解的情況看,PPP項目政府采購工作在取得初步成效的同時,也還存在不少挑戰,主要反映在以下兩個方面:  

      一是思想認識上存在誤區,依法采購的意識不強。一些地方忽視了PPP是供給側結構性改革的重要內容,是全生命周期的管理,仍然將PPP作為一個市場化的融資手段來對待,固守傳統的招商思維,主要依靠政府自身資源去尋找社會資本,而忽略了優勝劣汰的市場競爭機制,在操作上規避政府采購法律制度約束,項目“形似而神不似”。   

      二是操作執行中存在急躁現象,采購過程不規范。財政部在進行PPP項目采購的制度設計時,設置了強制資格預審程序,除了驗證市場響應程度、讓社會資本提前介入項目為后續采購預留時間空間、提高競爭性磋商方式效率等考慮外,還有一個重要的考慮就是避免急功近利,防止發生“穿政府采購的新鞋走老路”,形成新的政府債務。實踐證明,這種擔心并非“杞人憂天”。我們發現,部分地方在項目采購中采取了“先上車后補票”的做法,先以政府會議紀要形式直接指定社會資本合作者,再到財政部門申請采用單一來源方式開展采購。還有部分地方為避免“二次招標”,不顧項目需求的特點,將社會資本合作者的選擇和項目施工方的選擇合二為一采用招標方式進行,實際執行效果不甚理想。    

      上述這些問題,既影響PPP項目的采購質量和效果,也不利于社會資本市場的培育,還為后續項目執行埋下了法律風險,必須在下一步的工作中予以規范。   

      二、規范PPP項目政府采購活動的幾點考慮   

      如果說,PPP是一場政府和社會資本的“婚姻”,那么項目采購活動的開展,就是政府和社會資本“戀愛和磨合”的過程,并通過這個過程形成政府采購合同這個法定的“結婚證”。從這個角度講,PPP項目社會資本合作者的選擇,不僅僅是一個采購上的技術性問題,更是關系到項目“物有所值”價值目標實現,以及項目后續有效執行的關鍵性問題。在這個過程中,參與的雙方都必須遵循契約精神,真誠相待,平等協商,重點把握好以下幾個環節。   

      一是做好項目識別、準備與采購階段的銜接。從我們掌握的情況看,現行PPP項目一次性采購成功的比例并不高,其中一個重要的原因,就是參與采購活動的社會資本數量不足。沒有社會資本的積極參與,PPP就會是“剃頭挑子一頭熱”,必須采取有效措施來擴大社會資本的參與面。一方面,項目實施機構要做好項目識別、準備階段的信息公開,讓社會資本能夠在項目伊始就可以關注和跟蹤項目情況,能夠有針對性地提出有利于項目公平競爭和項目實施的意見建議,能夠有充足的時間做好參與采購前的各項準備工作。另一方面,財政部門內部要做好項目實施方案驗證與政府采購需求管理、供應商資格條件、采購活動評審的銜接,確保項目實施方案有關政府需求內容符合合規、完整、明確的政府采購需求管理要求,確保實施方案有關社會資本條件內容符合政府采購法定的供應商資格條款要求,確保實施方案有關競爭因素內容符合政府采購評審制度要求。  

      二是根據采購需求的特點選擇合適的采購方式。按照現行的《招標投標法》和《政府采購法》,均是無預算不采購,需求不清不采購,這與PPP提倡的從項目立項等前期籌備工作開始時社會資本就介入的要求不相適應。為解決這一問題,財政部依法認定了競爭性磋商這一新的采購方式,允許PPP項目實施機構與社會資本就完善采購需求反復進行磋商,直至雙方達成一致意見方才進入項目評審階段,同時在制度上從資格預審、信息公開、采購結果確認談判、PPP合同確認等方面,與PPP項目管理要求做了全流程銜接,并遵從國際慣例,不再對依法競爭獲得合作者身份的社會資本提出二次招標選擇承包商的要求。項目實施機構和財政部門要按照項目的需求特點和效率要求,結合資格預審情況,依法選擇適用各種競爭性采購方式。其中,對于核心邊界條件和技術經濟參數能夠詳細描述且在采購中不作更改的項目,應當采用招標方式采購,反之,則應采取競爭性磋商和競爭性談判方式開展采購。只有出現法定情形,方可采用單一來源采購方式。  

      三是做好采購活動組織和信息公開。PPP模式遵循的公平、公正、公開和誠實信用原則和追求的“物有所值”價值目標,與政府采購法定的原則和追求的價值目標完全一致,這也是世界各國普遍將PPP項目納入政府采購管理的一個重要原因。公平強調的是規則和標準,公正強調的是結果和爭議處理,公開強調的是程序和社會監督,誠實信用強調的是契約精神。沒有嚴格的程序執行,就沒有合法的采購結果,沒有充分的信息公開,就沒有有效的社會監督。集中采購機構和政府采購社會中介代理機構,必須嚴格按照政府采購法律制度有關程序要求的規定操作PPP項目,依法做好采購需求、資格預審、采購文件、采購結果、采購合同、履約驗收等各個環節的信息公開,防止出現因程序違法而導致采購活動失敗,以及由此引發的后續法律糾紛。 

      四是依法簽訂和執行項目采購合同。任何一個國家的政府采購制度設計,均是圍繞著采購合同的訂立來展開的。采購活動的過程,就是形成雙方平等的權利義務關系的過程。因此,世界各國均規定采購人與供應商享有自愿訂立政府采購合同的權利,前提是必須遵守政府采購法的相關規定。PPP項目采購也是如此。項目實施機構在選擇與之訂立合同的社會資本時,必須嚴格執行政府采購法定的方式和程序,并嚴格按照采購文件確定的事項和依法確定的采購結果簽訂PPP項目合同。項目合同一旦訂立,對項目實施機構和社會資本就形成了法律層面的保護,任何一方都不得隨意更改和調整項目合同條款。因此,項目實施機構和社會資本均應提高對項目合同嚴肅性的認識,在資格預審、采購需求形成過程、采購文件制定、采購合同文本制定、采購結果確認談判等采購活動的關鍵環節,就雙方關注的合同核心條款協商一致,防止出現后續履約風險。 

      在公共服務領域推廣PPP模式,是黨中央、國務院交給財政部門的一項重要任務,責任重大、使命光榮。下一步,財政部國庫司(政府采購管理辦公室)將按照財政部PPP工作領導小組的部署,繼續完善相關制度研究和頂層設計,配合有關部門做好PPP項目采購環節的業務指導,不斷優化PPP項目的政府采購方式、采購程序和監管方式,扎實推進PPP項目政府采購管理相關工作,助推PPP工作順暢、高效開展。各級財政部門也要不辱使命、不負重托,勇挑重擔,下好先手棋、打好主動仗,推動PPP 快速“從藍圖到現實”和落地開花結果!(財政部國庫司巡視員 )

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