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    政務信息化采購模式路在何方?(上)

    2019年08月13日 09:28 來源:中國政府采購報打印

      ■ 陳瑤 

      “數字政府”改革建設是民之所望、改革所向的戰略性舉措,其總體目標是以云計算、大數據等信息技術驅動政務創新,構建統籌建設、業務協同、數據共享、服務便捷的一體化政務信息體系,建成覆蓋全國的整體聯動、部門協同、省級統籌、一網辦理的“互聯網+政務服務”技術和服務體系,推動政府治理體系和治理能力的現代化,建設“以人民為中心”的服務型政府,提升政府服務群眾、企業的能力。 

      “數字政府”的改革背景下,政務信息化項目的采購方式、項目屬性和供應商方面等都發生了新的變化。基于這一事實,筆者結合政府采購相關法律法規分析了現象背后的原因,并針對如何選擇采購模式提出對策性建議。 

      政務信息化項目是“數字政府”組織實施形式 

      黨的十八大以來,黨中央高度重視以政務信息化推進國家治理體系和治理能力現代化,“數字中國”“智慧社會”等理念相繼被提出。現行法律、法規、規章和規范性文件對“數字政府、政務信息化、互聯網+政務服務”未作出明確的定義。結合已有的“數字政府”相關定義和服務實踐,筆者認為,“數字政府”是指在互聯網、云計算網、大數據、物聯網等技術支撐下,政府部門對外提供服務、履行管理職能、收集發布與公開信息、內部辦公和業務協同等事務在數字化、網絡化的環境下進行的新型政府運行模式,是“數字中國”體系的有機組成部分,是推動“數字中國”建設、推動社會經濟高質量發展、再創營商環境新優勢的重要抓手和重要引擎。 

      政務信息化項目則是“數字政府”組織實施形式,政務信息化項目是指主要使用政府財政性資金投資用于支撐政府部門履行服務和管理職能的各類信息化服務項目,包括但不限于基礎設施、軟件開發、系統運維、業務運營及第三方服務等服務項目。其中基礎設施服務是指政務內網和外網、政務云等的開發建設;軟件開發服務是指應用支撐平臺、政務服務管理平臺、審批業務辦理系統和互聯網政務服務門戶等各類信息系統的開發服務;運維服務是指基于基礎設施和各類信息系統的運行維護服務;業務運營服務是指業務需求分析、業務數據統計分析、業務數據治理等服務;第三方服務是指圍繞政務信息化建設的有關咨詢、監理、測評、安全等服務。 

      但與此同時,政府部門之間的系統信息孤島、數據資源共享程度低、群眾辦事不便捷仍是政務信息化的共性問題,政務信息系統以單個項目建設為中心,建設運維各自為政、基礎設施重復建設,分散、孤立建設運營,缺乏統籌規劃和資源整合;政務服務內容不規范不標準、平臺不互通、數據不共享,線上線下聯通不暢、群眾辦事不便捷;數據資源由政府部門各自控制、條塊分割,共享開發利用水平低等仍是待突破的瓶頸。 

      政務信息化項目的采購實踐新變 

      鑒于“數字政府”改革建設的資金來源以政府財政性資金為主,在項目實施過程中,需遵循相應的采購程序。此前傳統的政務信息化項目以單個系統的建設和運維為主,以工程類項目采購為主,但基于“數字政府”改革的核心是創新建設運營模式,近年來“數字政府”業務建設運營模式的創新可能反哺和推動政務信息化項目政府采購工作的創新。如何創新政府采購傳統機制流程以適應和支持“數字政府”改革建設運營模式的推進,這不僅是考驗財政主管部門的一道難題,也是拓展服務類采購領域的一個全新探索。 

      本文從中國政府采購網上選取了北京、上海、山東、江蘇、浙江、貴州、福建、廣東、海南十個地區共計60個項目采購信息作為分析樣本,對省級政務信息化項目采購活動的數據分析后發現,采購活動整體呈現以下四個方面的新變化: 

      采購模式上,從分散采購向批量采購轉變 

      以往,每個單位都有其獨立的信息系統,采購模式上也是由省直各單位作為采購人自行或者委托集采中心組織采購。現在每個單位的信息系統統一遷移上省級政務云,各單位不再單獨新建政務信息系統,在采購模式上,開始轉變為由統一的省級信息主管部門作為采購人,自行或者委托集采機構組織云服務商的采購工作,由中標/成交供應商與省直各單位按照“先使用后付費”的原則購買政務云服務。不同之處在于,通過資格入圍招標之后,貴州、海南等地的采購單位不需要另行組織第二輪采購,而直接與云服務商簽署具體云服務協議即可;而有的省市,如北京、山東、廣東則需要另行組織第二輪采購,確定中標/成交云服務商之后再簽署具體的云服務協議。 

      總體而言,批量采購是適應政務云服務模式的一種采購組織形式,是近年來各省份在政務信息化項目采購活動中的創新之舉,通過招標/非招標方式確定一 家或多家云服務商,各省直單位作為使用者與云服務商直接簽署服務協議。批量采購模式相較于傳統的各部門分散采購模式,不僅可以省去省直各部門的采購精力,提高采購效率,“按需使用,先使用后結算”有利于節省政府財政資金,提高資源的利用率,而且還可以由具有相應專業能力的信息化主管部門組織采購, 將真正技術能力過硬、服務質量過優的云服務商選擇進來,提高政務信息化項目的整體質量。 

      采購方式上,從公開招標為主向招標與非招標并存轉變 

      政務信息化項目的傳統采購以招標方式為主,原因是省直各部門獨立開展政府采購工作,為保證項目建設的市場競爭性,招標方式更能夠滿足。且政務信息化項目的金額一般在各省份規定的公開招標限額以上,因此,如果需采取非招標方式的,項目還得經本級財政部門批準。但改革后的政務信息化項目,采購方式也從公開招標為主向招標與非招標并存轉變,非招標方式主要以單一來源方式和競爭性磋商方式為主。單一來源和競爭性磋商方式的共同點在于采購人可就具體的政務信息化采購需求和價格同對方進行談判、磋商,以達到需求明確、價格合適的采購目的。 

      在選取的60個省級政務信息化項目的采購信息中,采用公開招標方式的項目有29個,采用非招標方式采購的項目有31個,其中,單一來源占20個,競爭性磋商占9個,競爭性談判2個。 

      采購屬性上,從工程向服務轉變 

      信息化建設過程中,硬件是基礎,核心是應用。傳統政府各部門以自建數據中心搭建政務云基礎設施的工程類建設運營模式為主,該模式重建設輕運維,數據中心能耗高,同時又因后續政府財政資金投入缺乏保障,系統無法得到持續改進,造成采購效率低下和大面積的資源浪費。近些年來的政務信息化項目,尤其是政務云服務項目的建設重心開始從IaaS層的硬件投入開始向PaaS層和SaaS層轉變,重點發力在PaaS層的數據共享開放平臺和業務支撐平臺和SaaS層的民生服務、協同辦公、政務服務網、電子印章、電子證照等各類應用上。因此,基于建設運營模式的創新和建設重心的轉變,政務信息化項目的采購屬性也從工程代建模式轉變為購買/租用服務類采購。 

      服務類采購一方面可以有效降低政府部門的一次性成本投入,增強資源彈性能力,簡化大量運維工作,讓政府部門將精力集中在如何提升應用系統的業務服務質量上,改變“硬件領先,應用落后”的局面,支撐政府決策和提供政務服務能力的水平。另一方面,也可以讓云服務商以“運營者”的角色投入進系統運維和運營當中,服務商只有交付滿意的服務質量才能完成項目驗收,才能獲取理想的服務報酬。例如,本文選取的60個政務信息化采購項目均為服務類采購。 

      中標供應商上,從ICT 硬件商向云服務商轉變 

      傳統的政務信息系統建設以硬件投入為主,主要是中國聯通、中國電信和中國移動等基礎電信企業,而目前的政務信息化市場中標/成交供應商,已經成為云服務商的競爭角逐之地,騰訊云、阿里云云計算廠商和太極軟件、浪潮等系統集成廠商已占據絕對優勢。另一方面,云上貴州大數據產業發展有限公司、數字廣東網絡建設有限公司等因“數字政府”改革建設而設立的專門建設運營中心,也成為重要的新興力量。 

      (作者單位:數字廣東網絡建設有限公司) 

      

      

       

       

       

       

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