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    世界銀行采購體系改革及啟示

    2019年04月17日 08:58 來源:中國政府采購網打印

      ■ 夏玲 

        世界銀行(以下簡稱“世行”)每年通過投資項目貸款(Investment Project Financing,IPF)在130多個國家實施總價值約150億美元的業務采購(Operations Procurement)。因其規模巨大、實施環境復雜,世行業務采購歷來受到各界廣泛關注,其采購制度是其他國際組織和各國構建采購體系的主要參考制度之一。     

     

      一、世行采購體系改革概述  

      為了加強對IPF資金的使用管理,適應全球范圍內新技術發展、采購模式創新等形勢變化,世行于2016年7月發布了新采購體系(New Procurement Framework)。在此之后批準的IPF項目按照新采購體系執行,不再執行原《貨物、工程和非咨詢服務采購指南》與《咨詢顧問選聘指南》。       

      新采購體系由50多個文件組成。文件層級和效力由高到低的順序為:采購政策——采購規則/采購指令——采購程序——采購指導文件。其中,由世行董事會通過的《IPF和其他業務采購政策》具有最高效力,其他采購制度文件均以此為依據。這些文件包括:    

      1.《IPF和其他業務采購政策》;   

      2.《IPF借款人采購規則》;     

      3.《IPF和其他業務采購指令》;   

      4.《IPF和其他業務采購程序》;     

      5.涉及采購策略、可持續采購、評審標準、采購投訴、合同管理等事項的20多個《采購指導文件》;   

      6.采購策略、采購計劃、采購公告、表達興趣函等文件模板;   

      7.用于貨物、工程、咨詢服務和非咨詢服務的通用標準采購文件,以及醫療衛生、教育、成套設備、管理服務、信息系統等專業領域的標準采購文件。   

     

      二、新采購體系確立的核心采購原則   

      在原采購指南確立的經濟和效率、機會平等、促進國內產業、透明等4項原則的基礎上,世行新采購體系修訂并擴展了業務采購應當遵循的7項核心原則。  

      (一)物有所值。  

      有效、高效和經濟地使用資源,評估成本、效益和非價格屬性,必要時考慮生命周期成本。單一的價格因素并不一定代表物有所值。   

      (二)經濟。  

      支持實現上述物有所值目標,將經濟、環境、社會及可持續等因素納入采購過程統籌考慮。     

      (三)誠信。   

      資金、資源、資產和權力的使用符合既定目標,采購各方及其工作人員遵守最高道德標準,避免欺詐和腐敗。   

      (四)適合用途。   

      充分考慮采購的背景、風險、金額和復雜性,采用可以實現項目目標和預期成果的最佳安排。   

      (五)效率。   

      采購活動的金額和風險相匹配,充分考慮執行時間,避免拖延。   

      (六)透明。   

      采購文件和采購信息適當披露,對采購活動進行適當審查。所有感興趣的相關方都能可持續地、及時地,以合理費用或免費獲得采購信息,發布關于采購活動的報告,采購合同中合理使用保密條款。   

      (七)公平。   

      所有合格供應商享有平等機會和平等待遇,采購人與供應商之間平等分配權利義務,建立處理投訴并提供追索權的可靠機制。   

     

      三、新采購體系的重點舉措    

      為了更好地實現IPF項目的既定目標,幫助企業獲得合同,新采購體系采取了以下創新舉措:   

      (一)重視采購策略分析。   

      每個IPF項目都制定項目采購策略(Project Procurement Strategy for Development, PPSD),其復雜程度因項目金額大小而異。PPSD分析項目需求,評估項目運行環境、機構執行能力、市場供應能力、項目風險等因素,確定風險管理措施和合同管理計劃,作出最佳采購安排。PPSD為選擇采購方式和作出采購決定提供了依據。   

      (二)競爭方式多元化。   

      國際公開競爭仍是世行推薦的采購方式,但一個項目所遵循的程序最終取決于該項目的具體情況。采購人可根據項目實際進行“選擇方法+市場方式+合同類型”組合,形成具有該項目特色的“定制化”方案,以最大限度實現項目目標和物有所值。例如,對于貨物、工程和非咨詢服務,新采購體系規定了征詢建議書、征詢投標書、詢價、直接選擇等4種選擇方法,公開競爭、有限競爭等12種市場方式,以及總包干合同、績效合同等7種合同類型。根據項目的性質和復雜程度,還提供了商業慣例、電子逆向拍賣等9種特殊安排供采購人選擇。  

      (三)完善投訴處理機制。  

      新采購體系完善了投訴管理程序,在發出合同授予意向通知書后設置停頓期。在此期間,未獲得合同的供應商可以要求采購人提供情況說明,并決定是否提起投訴。停頓期內不得授予合同;若在此期間收到投訴,則在投訴解決之前不得授予合同。   

      (四)實施全過程監控。  

      一是對于高價值、高風險的采購項目實施基于風險的事前或事后審查制度。二是開發“采購信息追蹤系統”(Systematic Tracking of Exchanges in Procurement, STEP)對采購活動實施全程跟蹤,界定采購風險,獲取采購信息,監控、報告采購流程。STEP對于及時發現和解決問題具有十分重要的作用。三是強化合同管理。設定關鍵績效指標(Key Performance Indicators, KPI)確保雙方切實履行合同、管理合同風險。合同完成后,還要對合同履行情況進行績效評估。   

      (五)重視采購能力建設。  

      為了促進借款國采購體系建設,提高采購相關方的專業能力,新采購體系采取了以下措施:一是實行“替代采購安排”(Alternative Procurement Arrangements),對于符合相關規定的項目,若其本國采購體系通過世行評估,借款國可以執行本國采購制度;二是面向借款國和企業分別制定通俗易懂的指導文件,制定標準采購文件和模板,方便采購人和企業使用;三是“手把手提供支持”(Hands-on Expanded Implementation Support),必要時,世行采購專家向采購人提供直接幫助,包括起草采購文件、分析供應商響應文件、觀察談判過程等;四是開發電子學習系統(E-Learning),采購專家從業前必須完成相應課程、通過測試,打印系統自動生成的證書。  

     

      四、對我國政府采購制度改革的啟示    

      世行采購體系改革處于國際公共采購制度改革前沿,反映了更加關注物有所值、更加注重采購結果、更加尊重采購項目個性化需求的發展趨勢,對我國政府采購制度改革具有重要借鑒意義。  

      (一)從法律高度確定“物有所值”和“結果導向”原則。  

      我國《政府采購法》確定的原則為公開、公平、公正和誠實信用,更多地關注節約資金和反腐倡廉,在實際執行中對采購結果和非價格因素的重視不夠,有必要在法律層面引入物有所值和結果導向原則。  

      (二)推進采購方式由“制式化”向“定制化”轉變。  

      《政府采購法》關于采購方式的規定側重于強調公平待遇和公開透明,在利用政府采購政策扶持特定產業、特定群體,以及逐步培育市場主體時往往不夠靈活,對因服務對象、采購時間和項目地點等不同而產生的個性化需求也難以做出適應性調整。建議逐步改變目前“放之四海皆準”的“制式化”采購方式和程序安排,探索因時、因地、因項目而異的“定制化”采購方式,提高采購結果滿意度。 

      (三)探索建立采購策略分析論證制度。  

      在推進采購方式靈活化的同時,采購機構要加強對采購需求、項目運行環境、市場供應能力、機構能力和人員素質等的分析論證,綜合考慮國家的經濟和社會發展政策目標,作出相對最優的采購安排,并確保其安排具有充分、合理的理由。  

      (四)實施以風險控制為核心的全程監控管理。 

      采購周期、異常高價/低價、履約以及廉政等風險事項貫穿于采購活動和合同執行的全過程。目前我國政府采購全程風險防控和處置機制還不完善,采購活動中一旦發生風險事項,將直接影響政府預算執行和公共職能的履行。應強化采購活動過程控制和合同履約管理,及時識別和處置風險,提高財政資金使用效率和效益。  

      (五)從職業化視角提升專業水平。  

      采購人員職業化是國際趨勢,世行、經濟合作與發展組織(OECD)聯合開發的《采購系統評估方法》(Methodology for assessing procurement systems, MAPS)將“國家把采購視為一項職業”、“實施資格和專業證書管理”等作為衡量國家采購體系的重要評分指標。在我國深入推進“放管服”改革的背景下,為了切實提高政府采購從業人員專業素質,可以借鑒世行電子學習系統的做法,國家統一開發、免費提供面向各類采購主體的電子學習課程,要求相關人員從事政府采購業務之前應當完成學習、通過測試,并將此作為單位內控要求進行考核評估。(資料來源:世行官方網站和世行采購應用程序) 

      作者單位系財政部國庫司(政府采購管理辦公室) 

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