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    世界銀行關于采購需求管理的經驗及對我國政府采購制度改革的啟示

    2019年04月17日 08:34 來源:中國政府采購網打印

       ■ 夏玲

       采購是世界銀行(以下簡稱“世行”)實現發展援助和政策意圖的重要抓手。多年來,世行以高標準采購體系引領了主要政府間國際金融機構的采購制度和管理模式。20167月,世行發布了新采購體系(New Procurement Framework),建立了采購發展戰略管理制度(Project ProcurementStrategy forDevelopment, 以下簡稱PPSD),將采購需求的確定和實現貫穿于項目執行全過程,確保采購活動最大限度實現項目預期目標。  

      

    一、世行采購需求的主要內容和形成機制  

      世行新采購體系的顯著特點之一,是采購管理鏈條向需求和結果延伸,由注重交易過程轉向注重前期采購計劃和后期合同管理(參見圖1),采購管理與預算執行有機結合,并圍繞采購需求的形成和實現設置了一系列控制機制。

      (一)采購需求的作用。   

      采購需求是項目目標在采購活動中的具體化,是采購活動的核心。在采購活動中,采購需求既是供應商響應、報價的基準,也是采購人決策的依據,在很大程度上決定著采購活動的成敗和項目執行的效果。合理、明確、詳實的采購需求能激勵潛在供應商參與政府采購活動,提高采購成功率,實現項目的績效目標,并為后續采購提供經驗和借鑒。

      (二)采購需求的主要內容。   

      采購需求主要解決買什么、買多少以及需要什么服務的問題,一般包括采購項目基本信息、功能性需求、政策性需求和其他要求。   

      1.產品清單和交付時間。主要指產品及相關服務的名稱、數量、項目所在地、最早和最晚交付時間等基本要求。     

      2.產品技術規范。技術規范詳細列明產品的技術特征,充分描述相關產品的材料和工藝標準、測試項目、所需服務、履約保證及違約賠償等。技術規范要鼓勵技術創新,同時注意非限制性和非歧視性。  

      3.政策性要求。滿足世行的經濟、社會、環境等政策要求,包括勞工和工作條件、資源效率和污染防控、社區健康、安全等多項環境和社會標準。   

      4.其他要求。采購人可根據項目實際情況,遵循世行采購核心原則,提出一些特殊要求。例如,在成本費用合理的情況下,可要求供應商進行必要的測試或檢驗,以驗證產品性能是否符合規定的技術規范和標準。   

      (三)采購需求的形成過程和影響因素。   

      采購需求的形成主要通過PPSD來完成。世行認為,項目規劃的早期階段是實現物有所值的最佳時機。因此,世行要求借款人在完成可行性研究之后、項目正式獲批之前制定PPSDPPSD可以概括為形成采購需求和確定采購安排兩部分,前者涉及一系列分析研究工作,是PPSD 的主要著眼點。PPSD通過明確項目發展目標(Project Development Objective, PDO),分析項目實施的內外部環境,界定采購活動面臨的風險和機遇,形成采購需求。     

      1.項目發展目標(PDO)。PDO是指項目所希望達成的基本目標,每個PDO對應一個或幾個可歸因、有時限的成果指標。采購需求來源于PDO,是PDO和成果指標在采購項目中的具體體現。   

      2.實施環境分析。這一分析主要針對政治、經濟、社會、技術、法治、生態等影響市場和供應商行為的外部環境。采購項目處于不同的外部環境中,其采購需求具有不同特點。例如,在不同的自然和地理條件下,建設標準存在差異;在某些國家,航空測繪等限制性合同必須面向國有企業采購。   

      3.市場分析。分別從供需雙方的角度,研究市場運作方式及其影響,最大限度地激勵有效投標人參與競爭。例如,如果買方在付款方面的記錄不夠理想,可以通過適當放寬交付時間、降低服務要求、完善付款機制等舉措,增加采購項目對供應商的吸引力;如果市場上某類產品的有效供應商不足,可以考慮簽訂長期合同或者尋找替代產品。   

      4.采購風險分析。世行將項目執行中的風險分為技術風險、財政風險、環境社會風險和資金支付風險。財政風險包括公共財政管理、采購、腐敗等具體風險事項。其中,采購風險分析主要是界定采購各個階段可能存在的風險、機遇及其影響程度,明確責任主體,提出管控措施。采購風險對合同成本、供應商報價、合同執行、項目績效有直接影響,借款人需盡量使風險最小化、機遇最大化。   

      5.利益相關方分析。利益相關方是指可能影響項目或受項目影響的主體,包括政府、受益人、被項目影響的個人或組織等。利益相關方分析主要是為了在項目實施過程中,妥善處理和適當滿足利益相關方訴求。例如,施工地點位于居民區的,需要更高標準的、具有噪音屏蔽功能的施工圍擋。   

      

    二、世行采購需求的實現機制     

      采購需求一旦確定,意味著項目可進入實施階段。為了確保采購需求實現,最終達成項目預期目標,世行采購制度從人員配備、采購執行和合同履行等幾方面建立了保障機制。    

      (一)采購人員配備和責任歸屬。     

      世行項目由借款人的項目管理和執行機構人員、經世行授予資格的專家共同完成。借款人是采購活動執行主體和責任主體,在世行駐項目所在地專家的協助下編制PPSD等項目執行文件,報世行總部批準。在項目準備和執行過程中,總部可以酌情向借款人提供“手把手”技術指導,但借款人的主體責任并不因此而轉移。   

      (二)采購過程中的需求實現機制。   

      采購過程是將采購需求轉化為合同的過程,主要有以下環節:一是最佳采購安排。根據項目目標和采購需求,靈活組合“采購方式+市場范圍+合同類型”,形成與采購項目金額、需求、風險、性質和復雜程度最匹配的“定制化”采購方案。二是科學設定評審標準。評審標準是采購需求的直觀反映,要以采購需求為核心,涵蓋采購需求的全部內容,包括采購的產品及相關服務要求,并科學設置量化評分細則。三是重視采購合同。合同條款來源于采購需求和相關標準文本。采購人綜合考慮采購的風險、性質、價格機制,以及采購雙方職責義務等,選擇適當的合同類型。合同內容應當全面、充分滿足所有采購需求,反映產品全部規格要求,細化風險管理措施,明確權利義務關系。   

      (三)合同履行中的采購需求實現機制。     

      合同履行即項目執行。世行要求借款人將PDO、采購需求和合同文本細化為分階段、可量化的具體指標,實現采購、履約、支付和績效管理的緊密銜接,確保項目執行效果。   

      1.設置兩套指標。一是合同履行關鍵績效指標(Key Performance Indicator),主要反映項目進展情況;二是支付指標(Disbursement Linked Result),主要反映支付進度。借款人按照這兩套指標監督合同履行,世行據此定期評估項目進展和支付進度,并在合同完成后開展績效評價。   

      2.形成兩項報告。采購人需每年兩次向世行提交《項目實施情況和結果報告》(Implementation Status and Results)和《備忘錄》(Aide Memoire),完整反映項目資金到位、合同履行、支付進度、風險管理、廉政建設等情況,提出下一步工作計劃。其中,前者側重于通過兩套指標等量化數據反映項目進展,后者側重于定性描述和綜合分析。世行根據報告跟蹤項目進展,對于出現異常狀況,尤其是風險等級提高或滿意程度下降的,將要求借款人作出說明并采取切實有效的風險管控措施。   

      

    三、對我國政府采購制度改革的啟示  

      世行采購體系改革處于國際公共采購制度改革前沿,對我國政府采購制度改革具有重要借鑒意義。   

      (一)建立健全政府采購需求管理制度。   

      在完善采購交易規則的同時,建立包括規章制度、參考文本和參考標準在內的政府采購需求管理制度體系,將采購需求管理與項目立項、預算批復、采購過程、資金支付和績效管理有機結合,確保采購活動有效實現項目目標,提高財政資金使用效益。   

      (二)強化預算部門主體責任和內控管理。     

      預算部門建立和完善內部采購需求管理制度,明確管理責任,做好內部控制和政策傳導。在采購代理機構和專家的專業協助下,加強對項目運行環境、市場供應能力、機構能力和人員素質等的分析論證,綜合考慮國家的經濟和社會發展政策目標,科學合理確定采購需求,并據此作出相對最優的采購安排。   

      (三)實施以風險控制為核心的全程監控管理。   

      采購周期、異常高價/低價、履約以及廉政等風險事項貫穿于采購活動和合同執行的全過程。目前我國政府采購全程風險防控和處置機制還不完善,采購活動中一旦發生風險事項,將直接影響政府預算執行和公共職能的履行。建議加強采購風險管理,及時識別和處置采購過程和合同履行中的風險事項。   

      (四)提升采購人員專業化水平。   

      采購人員職業化是國際趨勢,世行、經濟合作與發展組織等將其作為衡量國家采購體系是否完備的重要指標。在我國深入推進“放管服”改革的背景下,為了切實提高預算部門、采購代理機構、專家等政府采購從業人員的專業素質,可以借鑒世行電子學習系統的做法,國家統一開發政府采購電子學習平臺,向各類采購主體免費提供電子學習課程,要求相關人員從事政府采購業務之前應當在電子平臺完成學習、測試并生成證書,將此作為單位內控要求進行考核評估。(本文資料來源:世行官方網站和世行采購應用程序) 

        (作者單位系財政部國庫司(政府采購管理辦公室)

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